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Who controls East Asian corporations?, Volume 1
Author:Claessens, Constantijn A.; Djankov, Simeon; Lang, Larry H. P.; Country:Taiwan, China; Japan; Hong Kong SAR, China; Korea, Republic of; Philippines; Malaysia; Thailand; Singapore; Indonesia;
Date Stored:2001/04/25Document Date:1999/02/28
Document Type:Policy Research Working PaperSubTopics:Small Scale Enterprise; International Terrorism & Counterterrorism; Economic Theory & Research; Microfinance; Small and Medium Size Enterprises; Private Participation in Infrastructure; Rural Land Policies for Poverty Reduction
Language:EnglishMajor Sector:(Historic)Private Sector Development
Region:East Asia and Pacific; OTHReport Number:WPS2054
Sub Sectors:Business EnvironmentCollection Title:Policy, Research working paper ; no. WPS 2054
Volume No:1  

Summary: The authors identify the ultimate ownership structure for 2,980 corporations in nine East Asian countries. They find that: A) More than half of those firms are controlled be a single shareholder. B) Smaller firms and older firms are more likely to be family-controlled. C) Patterns of controlling ownership stakes differ across countries. The concentration of control generally diminishes with higher economic and institutional development. D) In many countries control is enhanced though pyramid structures and deviations from one-share-one-vote rules. As a result, voting rights exceed cash-flow rights. E) Management is rarely separated from ownership control, and management in two thirds of the firms that are not widely held is related to management of the controlling shareholder. F) In some countries, wealth is very concentrated and links between government and business are extensive, so the legal system has probably been influenced by the prevailing ownership structure.

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