Summary: This report is based on seven papers for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 published in The Lancet (December 13, 2010; 380). This publication summarizes the global GBD 2010 findings as well as the regional findings for Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). It also explores intraregional differences in diseases, injuries, and risk factors. Main findings for Latin America and the Caribbean include the following. 1) Latin America and the Caribbean made dramatic progress in reducing mortality and prolonging life since 1970; 2) over the last 20 years, the region has succeeded in decreasing premature death and disability from most communicable, newborn, nutritional, and maternal causes; HIV/AIDS remains a persistent challenge; 3) despite improvements, substantial burdens of communicable, newborn, nutritional, and maternal causes persist in low- and lower-middle-income countries in LAC, including Bolivia, Guatemala, Guyana, and Haiti; 4) between 1990 and 2010, demographic changes and risk factors contributed to rising disease burden from many non-communicable causes, particularly ischemicheart disease, mental disorders such as depression and anxiety, musculoskeletal disorders including low back pain and neck pain, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease; 5) Although health systems in Latin America and the Caribbean are grappling with a larger burden from non-communicable diseases than ever before, progress is being made in certain areas; 6) Dietary risks such as low fruit, nut and seed, and whole grain intake and high sodium consumption are a leading risk factor for premature death and disability in the region; 7) As countries in LAC have become more developed, road injuries have taken a growing toll on human health; 8) Disease and injury trends within Latin America and the Caribbean differ dramatically across countries in the region; 9) The leading causes of disability in Latin America and the Caribbean, including low back pain, neck pain, and other musculoskeletal disorders, as well as mental disorders such as depression and anxiety, largely mirrored global trends; and 10) When comparing countries health performance, low- and low-middle-income countries in the region had the highest age-standardized rates of premature death and disability due to communicable, newborn, nutritional, and maternal conditions while upper-middle-income countries had rates that were more comparable to developed countries.
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