Summary: This report is based on seven papers for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 published in The Lancet (December 13, 2010; 380). This publication summarizes the global GBD 2010 findings as well as the regional findings for the Middle East and North Africa. It also explores intraregional differences in diseases, injuries, and risk factors. Results for high-income Gulf Cooperation Council countries and Malta are presented in the Annex and discussed throughout the text. Main finding for the Middle East and North Africa include the following: 1) the Middle East and North Africa region has made dramatic progress in reducing mortality and prolonging life since 1970; 2) over the last 20 years, the region has succeeded in decreasing premature death and disability from most communicable, newborn, nutritional, and maternal causes with the notable exception of neonatal sepsis; 3) despite improvements, substantial burdens of communicable, newborn, nutritional, and maternal causes persist in some lower-middle-income countries in the Middle East and North Africa, such as Djibouti, Iraq, and Yemen; 4) between 1990 and 2010, disease burden from many non-communicable causes increased, especially ischemic heart disease, mental disorders such as depression and anxiety, musculoskeletal disorders including low back pain and neck pain, diabetes, and cirrhosis; 5) as countries in the Middle East and North Africa have become more developed, road injuries have taken a growing toll on human health; 6) in the Middle East and North Africa, a greater percentage of healthy years were lost from disability in 2010 compared to 1990; 7) risk factors such as dietary risks, high blood pressure, high body mass index, and smoking were leading risk factors for premature death and disability in the Middle East and North Africa; and 8) compared to some of its higher-income peers in the region, such as Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates, the low- and middle-income countries of Middle East and North Africa generally grappled with more burden from communicable, newborn, nutritional, and maternal conditions, such as lower respiratory infections, protein-energy malnutrition, and preterm birth complications.
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