Summary: Over the past three decades, China's urbanization has supported high growth and rapid transformation of the economy. Today, more than half of the world's population lives in cities, and by 2030 that will rise to an estimated 60 percent. The report takes as its point of departure the conviction that China's urbanization can become more efficient, inclusive, and sustainable. However, it stresses that achieving this vision will require strong support from both government and the markets for policy reforms in a number of areas. The report proposes six main areas for reform: first, amending land management institutions to foster more efficient land use, denser cities, modernized agriculture, and more equitable wealth distribution; second, adjusting the hukou system to increase labor mobility and provide urban migrant workers with equal access to a common standard of public services; third, placing urban finances on a more sustainable footing, while fostering financial discipline among local governments; fourth, improving urban planning to enhance connectivity and encourage scale and agglomeration economies; fifth, reducing environmental pressures through more efficient resource management; and sixth, improving governance at the local level. The report also provides recommendations on the timing and sequencing of reforms. It stresses the need to first implement reforms related to land, fiscal, and public service systems. Doing so will facilitate China's transition to higher-quality economic growth. In the first section of this report, chapters one through four analyze China's achievements in urbanization and the challenges it faces in achieving efficient, inclusive, and sustainable urbanization. In the second section, a comprehensive reform agenda is proposed. Chapter five lays out the vision for urban China in 2030 and the reform package that will be needed to achieve it. It also describes the urban landscape in 2030 under the reform scenario. Chapters six through ten provide a detailed set of recommendations in the key areas of reform. Finally, chapter eleven proposes the sequencing and timing of reforms. This report is complemented by seven supporting reports, urbanization and economic growth, spatial design and urban planning, inclusive urbanization, land, food security, green urbanization, and financing urbanization that further deepen the analysis and expand on the policy recommendations.
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