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Notes in the design and operation of waste stabilization ponds in warm climates of developing countries, Volume 1
Author:Arthur, J.P.; Collection Title:World Bank technical paper ; no. WTP 7. Urban development technical paper ; no. 6
Date Stored:2002/10/17Document Date:1983/04/30
Document Type:PublicationISBN:ISBN 0-8213-0137-3
Language:EnglishMajor Sector:Water, sanitation and flood protection
Report Number:WTP7Sub Sectors:Sewerage
SubTopics:Water Conservation; Wetlands; Water Resources Assessment; TF030632-DANISH CTF - FY05 (DAC PART COUNTRIES GNP PER CAPITA BELOW USD 2,500/AL; Sanitation and SewerageVolume No:1

Summary: The paper acknowledges that water carriage sewerage systems are not always the most appropriate sanitation solution for the disposal of liquid domestic wastes in developing countries. However, where water carriage systems are proposed, the first treatment option which should always be considered is the use of stabilization ponds, because in many instances, they represent the most cost effective and efficient way of treating domestic sewage flows. The paper results from a review of pond systems installed in six countries and concludes that: (i) designs differ widely; (ii) maximum use is not made of anaerobic ponds or the reuse potential of effluents; (iii) pond systems are frequently grossly overdesigned; and (iv) the designs are not responsive to the incremental growth encountered in LDCs. Practical design criteria are given for pond systems over a range of ambient temperature conditions and end use requirements together with notes on start up procedures, operation and trouble shooting. The recommendations are derived in part from the Israeli experience where considerable use is made of treated sewage effluent for irrigation purposes.

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