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The cost of being landlocked : logistics costs and supply chain reliability, Volume 1
Author:Arvis, Jean-Francois; Raballand, Gael; Marteau, Jean-Francois; Country:Africa; Central Asia;
Date Stored:2007/06/15Document Date:2007/06/01
Document Type:Policy Research Working PaperSubTopics:Common Carriers Industry; Rural Roads & Transport; Transport Economics Policy & Planning; Economic Theory & Research; Transport and Trade Logistics
Language:EnglishRegion:Europe and Central Asia; Africa
Report Number:WPS4258Collection Title:Policy, Research working paper ; no. WPS 4258
Volume No:1  

Summary: A large proportion of the least developed countries are landlocked and their access to world markets depends on the availability of a trade corridor and transit systems. Based on empirical evidence from World Bank projects and assessments in Africa, Central Asia, and elsewhere, this paper proposes a microeconomic quantitative description of logistics costs. The paper theoretically and empirically highlights that landlocked economies are primarily affected not only by a high cost of freight services but also by the high degree of unpredictability in transportation time. The main sources of costs are not only physical constraints but widespread rent activities and severe flaws in the implementation of the transit systems, which prevent the emergence of reliable logistics services. The business and donor community should push toward implementation of comprehensive facilitation strategies, primarily at the national level, and the design of robust and resilient transport and transit regimes. A better understanding of the political economy of transit and a review of the implementation successes and failures in this area are needed.

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