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Leora Klapper

Lead Economist


LEORA KLAPPER is a Lead Economist in the Finance and Private Sector Research Team of the Development Research Group at the World Bank. Since joining the Bank as a Young Economist in 1998, she has published on entrepreneurship, access to finance, corporate governance, bankruptcy, and risk management. Her current research focuses on entrepreneurship and household finance, and measurements of financial inclusion.  Prior to coming to the Bank she worked at the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, the Bank of Israel, and Salomon Smith Barney. She holds a Ph.D. in Financial Economics from New York University Stern School of Business.

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World Bank working papers and publications

1 .New firm registration and the business cycle
2 .Civil conflict and firm performance : evidence from Cote d'Ivoire
3 .Financial inclusion and the role of the post office
4 .Islamic finance and financial inclusion: measuring use of and demand for formal financial services among Muslim adults
5 .The role of private equity investments in public firms : international evidence
6 .Financial inclusion and legal discrimination against women : evidence from developing countries
7 .The foundations of financial inclusion : understanding ownership and use of formal accounts
8 .The World Bank research observer 27 (2)
9 .Incentivizing calculated risk-taking :evidence from an experiment with commercial bank loan officers
10 .Financial inclusion in Africa : an overview
11 .Measuring financial inclusion : the Global Findex Database
12 .Financial literacy and the financial crisis
13 .Financing businesses in Africa : the role of microfinance
14 .Financial literacy and retirement planning : the Russian case
15 .Patterns of business creation, survival and growth : evidence from Africa
16 .Trade credit contracts
17 .The impact of business environment reforms on new firm registration
18 .The challenges of bankruptcy reform
19 .The impact of the financial crisis on new firm registration
20 .Trade credit contracts
21 .The impact of the business environment on the business creation process
22 .Market power and the matching of trade credit terms
23 .Taxation and capital structure : evidence from a transition economy
24 .Entrepreneurship and firm formation across countries
25 .A firm-level analysis of small and medium size enterprise financing in Poland
26 .Corporate governance and bank performance : a joint analysis of the static, selection, and dynamic effects of domestic, foreign, and state ownership
27 .The role of factoring for financing small and medium enterprises
28 .American Depositary Receipts (ADR) holdings of U.S. based emerging market funds
29 .A survey of government regulation and intervention in financial markets
30 .Financing small and medium-size enterprises with factoring: global growth and its potential in eastern Europe
31 .Business environment and firm entry : Evidence from international data
32 .Further evidence on the link between finance and growth : an international analysis of community banking and economic performance
33 .Ownership structure and initial public offerings
34 .Portfolio preferences of foreign institutional investors
35 .The global growth of mutual funds
36 .Small and medium size enterprise financing in Eastern Europe
37 .Bankruptcy around the world - explanations of its relative use
38 .Corporate governance, investor protection, and performance in emerging markets
39 .The ability of banks to lend to informationally opaque small businesses
40 .Exchange rate risk management : evidence from East Asia
41 .The uniqueness of short-term collateralization
42 .Resolution of corporate distress - evidence from East Asia's financial crisis

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