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Data Charts

A job does not always come with a wage

Nonwage work represents more than 80 percent of women’s employment in Sub-Saharan Africa—but less than 20 percent in Eastern Europe and Central Asia.
Among youth, unemployment is not always the issue

621 million young people are “idle”—not in school or training, not employed, and not looking for work.
In China, employment growth is led by the private sector

The most remarkable example of the expansion of employment through private sector growth is China.
Jobs are transformational

Jobs are more than just the earnings and benefits they provide. They are also the output they generate, and part of who we are and how we interact with others in society.
Jobs provide higher earnings and benefits as countries grow

The relationship is not mechanical, but growth is clearly good for jobs.
Jobs account for much of the decline in extreme poverty

Labor earnings are the largest contributor to poverty reduction
Simultaneous job creation and destruction characterize all economies

Economic growth happens as jobs become more productive, but also as more productive jobs are created and less productive jobs disappear.
Larger firms pay higher wages

In developing countries, however, many people work in very small and not necessarily very dynamic economic units.
The employment share of microenterprises is greater in developing countries

These small units play significant roles in job creation, even in high-middle-income countries.
People who are unemployed, or do not have motivating jobs, participate less in society

Unemployment and job loss are associated with lower levels of both trust and civic engagement
Views on preferred jobs and most important jobs differ

Working as a civil servant or as a shop owner is generally preferred by individuals, while teachers and doctors are quite often mentioned as the most important jobs for society.
The individual and social values of jobs can differ

Two jobs that may appear identical from an individual perspective could be different from a social perspective
Good jobs for development are not the same everywhere

Looking through the jobs lens and focusing on key features of the different country types can help identify more clearly the kinds of jobs that would make the greatest contribution to development in each case.
Manufacturing jobs have migrated away from high-income countries

Jobs are on the move.
Three distinct layers of policies are needed

The role of government is to ensure that the conditions are in place for strong private-sector-led growth, to understand why there are not enough good jobs for development, and to remove or mitigate the constraints that prevent the creation of more of those jobs.
Finance and electricity are among the top constraints faced by formal private enterprises

Finance, infrastructure, and business regulations set the quality of the investment climate and thus influence job creation by private firms.
Combining work and training increases the success rates of programs

When they are not well grounded in the needs and realities of the labor market or when administration is poor and not transparent, they are of little use or even worse.
A decision tree can help set policy priorities

A simple approach to setting policy priorities follows five steps.
Which countries succeeded at addressing their jobs challenges and how?

Some countries have successfully set policy to bring out the development payoffs from jobs, in ways that provide a model to others.

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