| ||A job does not always come with a wage |
Nonwage work represents more than 80 percent of women’s employment in Sub-Saharan Africa—but less than 20 percent in Eastern Europe and Central Asia.
| ||Among youth, unemployment is not always the issue |
621 million young people are “idle”—not in school or training, not employed, and not looking for work.
| ||In China, employment growth is led by the private sector |
The most remarkable example of the expansion of employment through private sector growth is China.
| ||Jobs are transformational |
Jobs are more than just the earnings and benefits they provide. They are also the output they generate, and part of who we are and how we interact with others in society.
| ||Jobs provide higher earnings and benefits as countries grow |
The relationship is not mechanical, but growth is clearly good for jobs.
| ||Jobs account for much of the decline in extreme poverty |
Labor earnings are the largest contributor to poverty reduction
| ||Simultaneous job creation and destruction characterize all economies |
Economic growth happens as jobs become more productive, but also as more productive jobs are created and less productive jobs disappear.
| ||Larger firms pay higher wages |
In developing countries, however, many people work in very small and not necessarily very dynamic economic units.
| ||The employment share of microenterprises is greater in developing countries |
These small units play significant roles in job creation, even in high-middle-income countries.
| ||People who are unemployed, or do not have motivating jobs, participate less in society |
Unemployment and job loss are associated with lower levels of both trust and civic engagement
| ||Views on preferred jobs and most important jobs differ |
Working as a civil servant or as a shop owner is generally preferred by individuals, while teachers and doctors are quite often mentioned as the most important jobs for society.
| ||The individual and social values of jobs can differ |
Two jobs that may appear identical from an individual perspective could be different from a social perspective
| ||Good jobs for development are not the same everywhere |
Looking through the jobs lens and focusing on key features of the different country types can help identify more clearly the kinds of jobs that would make the greatest contribution to development in each case.
| ||Manufacturing jobs have migrated away from high-income countries |
Jobs are on the move.
| ||Three distinct layers of policies are needed |
The role of government is to ensure that the conditions are in place for strong private-sector-led growth, to understand why there are not enough good jobs for development, and to remove or mitigate the constraints that prevent the creation of more of those jobs.
| ||Finance and electricity are among the top constraints faced by formal private enterprises |
Finance, infrastructure, and business regulations set the quality of the investment climate and thus influence job creation by private firms.
| ||Combining work and training increases the success rates of programs |
When they are not well grounded in the needs and realities of the labor market or when administration is poor and not transparent, they are of little use or even worse.
| ||A decision tree can help set policy priorities |
A simple approach to setting policy priorities follows five steps.
| ||Which countries succeeded at addressing their jobs challenges and how? |
Some countries have successfully set policy to bring out the development payoffs from jobs, in ways that provide a model to others.