Effective Crisis Response and Openness: Implications for the Trading System,
by Olivier Cattaneo, Simon J Evenett, Bernard Hoekman, December 2009
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This book is to examine the ways in which the existing manifestations of openness, including binding international accords, have constrained or enhanced the options available to national policymakers during the crisis and influenced the degree, and potentially even the effectiveness, of cross-border cooperation.
Self-Enforcing Trade - Developing Countries and WTO Dispute Settlement
by Chad P. Bown, November 2009
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Self-Enforcing Trade examines the WTO's "extended litigation process," highlighting the tangle of international economics, law, and politics that participants must master. He identifies the costs that prevent developing countries from disentangling the self-enforcement process and fully using the WTO system as part of their growth strategies. Bown assesses recent efforts to help developing countries overcome those costs, including the role of the Advisory Centre on WTO Law and development focused NGOs. Bown's proposed Institute for Assessing WTO Commitments tackles the largest remaining obstacle currently limiting developing country engagement in the WTO's selfenforcement process -- a problematic lack of information, monitoring, and surveillance.
Distortions to Agricultural Incentives: A Global Perspective, 1955-2007
by Kym Anderson, October 2009
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The fifth and last volume in the Distortions to Agricultural Incentives series focus on distortions to agricultural incentives from a global perspective.
Distortions to Agricultural Incentives series brings together analytical narratives of the evolution over the past half-century of policy-imposed distortions to farmer incentives and food prices in 80 countries, drawing on new, consistent set of estimates spanning 90 percent of the world's agricultural markets. The first two titles in the series focus on Europe's transitional economies and Latin America. Other forthcoming titles in this series will focus on Africa and Asia. More about Distortions to Agricultural Incentives >>
Broken Promises: a G20 Summit Report by Global Trade Alert
by CEPR, September 2009
Second GTA report, prepared by an independent group of researchers and analysts located around the globe, is based on over 400 investigations of state measures that have been implemented since the first crisis-related G20 meeting in November 2008. Differences in the forms of protectionism used now and in the 1930s make exact comparisons difficult.
Fateful Allure of Protectionism
by Simon J. Evenett, Bernard M. Hoekman and Olivier Cattaneo, July 2009
The world is facing the most severe global economic crisis since the Great Depression
of the 1930s. For the first time since World War II, world GDP is expected to decline,
and growth in developing countries is expected to fall to 1.2% from 5.9% in 2008.
Trade has declined as well: global trade volumes are expected to fall by some 10% in
2009; the worst decline in trade since the 1930s. Governments have responded to the
crisis with policies to support economic activity and employment. Efforts have been
made to coordinate these policy responses, in particular to maintain an open trade
regime. The systemic risks of a resort to protectionist policies are generally recognized
by world leaders: at their April Summit in London, they committed to refrain from
raising new barriers and to minimize any negative impact on trade and investment of
domestic policy responses to the crisis.
Gender Aspects of the Trade and Poverty Nexus: A Macro-Micro Approach
Edited by Maurizio Bussolo, Rafael E. De Hoyos, April 2009
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Trade liberalization can create economic opportunities for poor people. But are these opportunities available to men and women equally? Do the gender disparities in access to education, health, credit, and other resources limit the gains from trade and the potential benefits to poor women? This volume introduces the gender dimension into empirical analyses of the links between trade and poverty, which can improve policy making.
The collection of chapters in this book is close to an ideal macro-micro evaluation technique that explicitly assesses the importance of gender in determining the poverty effects of trade shocks. Part I, relying on ex ante simulation approaches, focuses on the macroeconomic links between trade and gender, where labor market structure and its functioning play a key role. Part II concentrates on micro models of households and attempts to identify the ex post effects of trade shocks on household income levels and consumption choices. It also addresses questions about possible changes in inequality within households due to improved economic opportunities for women.
Trade Preference Erosion: Measurement and Policy Response
by Bernard Hoekman, Will Martin, Carlos Alberto Braga, April 2009
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Unilateral preferences granted by OECD countries introduced an inevitable tension between "more preferred" developing countries - typically beneficiaries from pre-existing colonial regimes - and other developing countries with respect to the effects of most-favored-nation liberalization by preference-granting countries. Concerns about preference erosion became an important point of debate in the the WTO Doha Development Agenda negotiations. Since the late 1990s, major OECD countries have significantly increased the scope and coverage of unilateral preferential regimes for the least developed countries; hence, it is not surprising that preference erosion has become an issue of concern.
This volume reviews the current value of preference programs of major OECD countries for beneficiary countries, assesses the implications of preference erosion under different global liberalization scenarios, and discusses potential policy responses. Contributions to the volume provide detailed analyses of specific preference programs and undertake cross-country, disaggregated analyses of the impact of preferences at the product level. Understanding the likely impacts and how those impacts are distributed is a precondition for formulating appropriate policy responses to preference erosion. A case is made that such responses need to focus on enhancing the competitiveness and supply side capacity of developing countries.
Breaking Into New Markets: Emerging Lessons for Export Diversification
by William Shaw, Richard Newfarmer, Peter Walkenhorst, March 2009
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Since the 1950s when countries became concerned that specialization in primary products would lead to steady falls in the purchasing power of primary exports and slow growth, diversifying out of primary products into manufactures has been a major policy objective of developing countries. Indeed, since that time, developing countries generally have become more diversified, but many low income countries remain dependent on a narrow range of primary products.
New questions concerning export diversification have emerged in the recent literature - and with important policy implications:
Is export diversification a natural structural outcome of the growth process itself, or can countries accelerate growth through active attention to diversifying exports?
What are the main constraints that prevent countries from diversifying - is it market failures that lead to private underinvestment in efforts to reach new export markets or is it associated with other market failures?
What policies are most suitable for countries to promote diversification - and should governments seek to stimulate export products with particular characteristics?
This book explores new thinking and evidence about export diversification, and elaborates on policies to promote diversification. The papers in this book are written as short, policy focused chapters that digest often longer, more academic papers in an effort to make them accessible to a larger policy and non-technical audience. In that sense, it is a policy primer: what export diversification can and cannot do for growth, and how to make it happen.
Distortions to Agricultural Incentives in Africa
by Kym Anderson and William A. Masters, March 2009
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Comprehensive empirical studies of the disarray in world agricultural markets appeared approximately 20 years ago. Since then, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development has provided estimates each year of market distortions in high-income countries, but there have been no comparable estimates for the world's developing countries.
This volume is the third in a series that not only fills that void for recent years but extends the estimates in a consistent and comparable way back in time's and provides analytical narratives for scores of countries that shed light on the evolving nature and extent of policy interventions over the past half-century. This title provides an overview of the evolution of distortions to agricultural incentives caused by price and trade policies in the Arab Republic of Egypt plus 20 countries that account for about of 90 percent of Sub-Saharan Africa's population, farm households, agricultural output, and overall GDP. Sectoral, trade, and exchange rate policies in the region have changed greatly since the 1950s, and there have been substantial reforms since the 1980s. Nonetheless, numerous price distortions in this region remain, others have been added in recent years, and there has also been some backsliding, such as in Zimbabwe. The new empirical indicators in these country studies provide a strong evidence based foundation for assessing the successes and failures of the past and for evaluating policy options for the years ahead. More about Distortions to Agricultural Incentives >>
Distortions to Agricultural Incentives in Asia
by Kym Anderson and Will Martin, February 2009
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Distortions to Agricultural incentives in Asia is the third volume in a series of books that brings together analytical narratives of the evolution over the past half-century of policy -imposed distortions to farmer incentives and food prices in 80 countries. Drawing on new consistent set of estimates spanning 90 percent of the world's agricultural markets. The first two titles in the series focus on Europe's transitional economies and Latin America. Future titles will focus on Africa and the distortions to agricultural incentives from a global perspective. More about Distortions to Agricultural Incentives >>
China's and India's Challenge to Latin America: Opportunity or Threat?
Edited by Daniel Lederman, Marcelo Olarreaga, Guillermo E. Perry, 2009
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The economic successes of China and India are viewed with admiration but also with concern because of the effects that the growth of these Asian economies may have on the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region. The evidence in "China's and India's Challenge to Latin America" indicates that certain manufacturing and service industries in some countries have been negatively affected by Chinese and Indian competition in third markets and that LAC imports from China and India have been associated with modest unemployment and adjustment costs in manufacturing industries. The book also provides substantial evidence of positive aggregate effects for LAC economies associated with China's and India's greater presence in world exports, financial flows, and innovation. Chinese and Indian growth is creating new production possibilities for LAC economies, particularly in sectors that rely on natural resources and scientific knowledge.
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Last updated on Aug 13, 2010