Poor People's Knowledge: Promoting Intellectual Property in Developing Countries
by J. Michael Finger and Philip Schuler, November 2003
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How can we help poor people earn more from their knowledge-rather than from their sweat and muscle alone? This book is about increasing the earnings of poor people in poor countries from their innovation, knowledge, and creative skills.
Case studies look at the African music industry; traditional crafts and ways to prevent counterfeit crafts designs; the activities of fair trade organizations; biopiracy and the commercialization of ethnobotanical knowledge; the use of intellectual property laws and other tools to protect traditional knowledge. The contributors’ motivation is sometimes to maintain the art and culture of poor people, but they recognize that except in a museum setting, no traditional skill can live on unless it has a viable market. Culture and commerce more often complement than conflict in the cases reviewed here.
The book calls attention to the unwritten half of the World Trade Organization’s Agreement on the Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property (TRIPS). TRIPS is about knowledge that industrial countries own, and which poor people buy. This book is about knowledge that poor people in poor countries generate and have to sell. It will be of interest to students and scholars of international trade and law, and to anyone with an interest in ways developing countries can find markets for cultural, intellectual, and traditional knowledge.
Agriculture, Trade, and the WTO in South Asia
by Merlinda D. Ingco, October 2003
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Historically, industrialized countries dominated trade negotiations from the establishment of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) through the lengthy Uruguay Round (UR) negotiations in the 1980s and 1990s. These negotiations established the World Trade Organization (WTO)-the GATT's successor organization-and formulated the UR Agreement on Agriculture (AoA). Even though developing countries possibly have the most to gain from a substantial reduction of existing export subsidies and removal of other trade impediments (Gorter, Ingco, and Ruiz 2000; Ingco 1995), these countries have been the most powerless, and the most ineffective. This is why it is imperative that developing countries, particularly those in South Asia, seize the moment to actively participate in this process of shaping a more globally integrated economic environment and to convey, for instance, their experience from implementing the reduction commitments and the effect of those commitments under the URAoA, the consequence of Special and Differential (S&D) Treatment, and their concerns regarding food security and the environment and the possible negative effects of the execution of the reform program. The new round, it is hoped, will cover broader issues, with established deadlines and room for tradeoffs.
Domestic Regulation and Service Trade Liberalization
by Aaditya Mattoo and Pierre Sauve, August 2003
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Trade in services, far more than trade in goods, is affected by a variety of domestic regulations, ranging from qualification and licensing requirements in professional services to pro-competitive regulation in telecommunications services. Experience shows that the quality of regulation strongly influences the consequences of trade liberalization. WTO members have agreed that a central task in the ongoing services negotiations will be to develop a set of rules to ensure that domestic regulations support rather than impede trade liberalization. Since these rules are bound to have a profound impact on the evolution of policy, particularly in developing countries, it is important that they be conducive to economically rational policy-making.
This book addresses two central questions: What impact can international trade rules on services have on the exercise of domestic regulatory sovereignty? And how can services negotiations be harnessed to promote and consolidate domestic policy reform across highly diverse sectors? The book, with contributions from several of the world's leading experts in the field, explores a range of rule-making challenges arising at this policy interface, in areas such as transparency, standards and the adoption of a necessity test for services trade. Contributions also provide an in-depth look at these issues in the key areas of accountancy, energy, finance, health, telecommunications and transportation services.
India and the WTO
by Aaditya Mattoo and Robert Stern, August 2003
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India’s increasing engagement in the international economy has created a growing awareness that multilateral trade negotiations can and must be used to serve development goals. At the same time, India is a developing economy of key importance in the WTO, and it played a pivotal role in the negotiation and design of the Doha Development Agenda. This book is intended to provide new information and analysis to policymakers and other stakeholders in India, and to assist them in articulating their interests and in developing negotiating strategies.
Topics covered in this book span the Doha Development Agenda and include calculations of the economic effects on India and other major countries; the implications for India and other South Asian exporting countries of abolition of the MFA; services trade liberalization; telecommunications policy reform; foreign direct investment; intellectual property rights; competition policy; government procurement; technical barriers to trade; trade and the environment; and an analysis of the issues coupled with concrete proposals to inform the participation of India in the Doha Development Agenda negotiations.
Moving People to Deliver Services
by Aaditya Mattoo and Antonia Carzaniga, June 2003
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The WTO now confronts an issue that lies at the interface of two major world challenges: trade liberalization and international migration. This book breaks new ground by examining the economic, legal, and political implications of the "temporary movement of individual service suppliers" currently being negotiated under the WTO’s General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). It brings together contributions from service providers, regulators (including ministries of labor and justice), researchers, trade negotiators, and the private sector. They provide a broad range of perspectives on one central question. How can services trade liberalization be accomplished in a way that benefits both home and host countries? The result is a balanced consideration of the issues surrounding WTO labor mobility negotiations at a historically critical juncture.
Standards & Global Trade: A Voice for Africa
by John S. Wilson and Victor O. Abiola, June 2003
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In expanding trade, the link between standards, access to foreign markets, and development is at the forefront of policy debate. This is particularly true for African countries, which face critical challenges in improving domestic capacity to meet production and quality standards required in foreign markets. In case studies of five African countries - Kenya, Mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa, and Uganda - Standards and Global Trade demonstrates the importance of addressing the impact of product standards both as barriers to trade and as opportunities to expand market access.
This book provides a comprehensive and in-depth case-by-case assessment of the current and anticipated use of international standards and capacity for compliance. Each chapter details the economic context in which standards apply to each country and examines the mechanisms with which the country and its representatives have participated in the process of setting/revising standards and technical regulations at the local and international level. The analysis includes a review of existing laws and regulations and the extent to which they are consistent with current international norms.
Standards and Global Trade examines each country’s physical infrastructure and organizational capacities to design and implement standards and technical regulations. The authors also discuss and analyze the implementation processes and some estimated impact of various standards, technical regulations, and related production/marketing practices in about five specific industry segments in each country. The volume suggests concrete action plans on how African firms and farmers can be supported to improve product quality and reach to international markets in key commodity sectors.
Options for Global Trade Reform: A View from the Asia-Pacific
by Will Martin and Mari Pangestu, April 2003
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Despite the decision of the WTO members to launch a new round of negotiations at their Doha Ministerial in November 2001, developing countries continue to have very real concerns on a number of key issues. The successful completion of the Doha trade round and the realisation of the goals of its Development Agenda represent a major challenge for both the developed and the developing world. The primary aim of this volume is to improve understanding of the issues, the objectives of policy and the options for trade policy reform particularly as they impact on the Asia-Pacific region. A team of authors from developing and developed countries in the Asia-Pacific identify ways in which progress might be made on the key negotiating topics, including market access and related issues in agriculture, non-agriculture merchandise and in trade in services.
Arab Economic Integration: Between Hope and Reality
by Ahmed Galal and Bernard Hoekman, 2003
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Improving the economic performance of Arab countries is now more critical than ever. The region faces high population growth rates, rising unemployment, and modest economic growth coupled with increasingly intense competition from emerging markets in eastern Europe, Latin America, and Asia. Meeting these challenges requires finding ways to overcome political obstacles that impede socially beneficial economic reforms. Despite fifty years of repeated attempts at Arab economic integration, the results in terms of intraregional trade and investment flows have been very modest. This book explains why and discusses possible ways forward. The authors draw especially on the success of the European Union to assess the scope of Arab economic integration as an instrument for narrowing the persistent gap between the region’s economic potential and its performance.
Regional Integration and Development
by Maurice Schiff and L. Alan Winters, February 2003
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Regional Integration and Development examines regionalism from the perspective of developing countries and presents a comprehensive account of existing theory and empirical results. This book incorporates the findings of formal analyses of the politics and dynamics of regionalism. It considers the relationship between regionalism and multilateralism and explores the economic advantages of nondiscriminatory trade liberalization, which the authors argue should be exploited to the maximum extent. The book also provides rules of thumb for regionalism, rules that are not inviolable but which should not be violated lightly.
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Last updated on May 3, 2010