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Peru - Public Expenditure Tracking Survey

Public Expenditure Tracking Surveys assess (often diagnostically) the issue of leakage of public funds or resources prior to reaching the intended beneficiary. Beyond measuring leakage of funds, data from these surveys can be used to analyze incentives for and the performance of frontline service providers in government and the private sector. Below is a good example of this kind of work.

Contact :José R. López-Cálix


The following are background papers from a joint World Bank/Inter-American Development Bank Report: Peru: Restoring Fiscal Discipline for Poverty Reduction: Public Expenditure Review,Report No. 24286-PE, World Bank, Washington, D.C., January 2003. (303 pages - 21.2 MB)


 
Background Paper - IV. Public Expenditure Tracking Surveys (PETS) - A PETS in Central Government Transfers to Municipalities in Peru: A Detailed Look at the Vaso de Leche Program, by Lorena Alcazar, Erik Wachtenheim, and José R. López-Cálix, September 2002.
 
This survey focuses on nutritional assistance program "Glass of Milk" transfer. The survey included municipalities (who receive the cash transfer from the central government and purchase the foodstuffs); the "Glass of Milk" committees (which receive foodstuffs and distribute to beneficiary households); and households (which in theory distribute the foodstuffs to the final beneficiaries: children and nursing/pregnant women.

Concept Note(PDF)
Sampling Note  (PDF)
Questionnaires

  • Cuestionario a madre beneficiaria del programa del vaso de leche (household.xls)
  • Cuestionario a miembro de la directiva del comité / club de madres (committee.xls)
  • Cuestionario para la municipalidad (municipal.xls)

Note: The following surveys offer guidance about the types of questions that may be most useful to your particular situation. However, it is likely that the instruments will have to be adapted in light of the issues that require attention, and the institutional context in which the survey is to be implemented.


Background Paper- VI.Public Expenditure Tracking Surveys (PETS) - The Education Sector in Peru, by Lorena Alcazar, Erik Wachtenheim, and José R. López-Cálix, September 2002.

This paper presents the results of a Public Expenditure Tracking Survey conducted by the World Bank in 2002 in the education sector of Peru. The study analyses the mechanisms of public resources transfers from the central government to intermediate units and schools to assess deficiencies in the transfer process and evaluate its effects on the education services provision. The study reveals worrisome results that deserve the attention of education policymakers and the public. In Lima, the capital of Peru, more than half of the schools in the sample had less teachers working than were registered in the personnel rosters (reflecting more the inaccuracy of the personnel rosters). At the national level, 20 percent of the intermediate education units registered payments for water and electricity services that schools say they never made (leakage).

Report(91 pages)
Executive Summary(10 pages)
Appendix 1. Breakfast Program (19 pages) 
Annex 2. Questionnaires (in Spanish) 

Note: The following surveys offer guidance about the types of questions that may be most useful to your particular situation. However, it is likely that the instruments will have to be adapted in light of the issues that require attention, and the institutional context in which the survey is to be implemented.

Summary in Spanish

Las Pérdidas en el Camino Fugas en el Gasto Público: Transferencias Municipales, Vaso de Leche y Educación   by Lorena Alcázar, Jose Roberto López-Calix and Erik Wachtenheim. Instituto Apoyo. Lima, Perú, 2003,SECCIÓN II, pages 91 to 155. 

Este capítulo presenta los resultados de un estudio de basado en la aplicación de Encuestas de Seguimiento del Gasto Público (Public Expenditure Tracking Surveys) en el sector de educación del Perú. El estudio analiza los mecanismos y resultados del proceso de transferencia de recursos públicos del gobierno central a las unidades intermedias y a las escuelas para entender sus deficiencias y evaluar su efecto en la calidad del servicio educativo.

El estudio revela cifras muy preocupantes que deben llamar la atención de los rsponsables de politícas del sector e incluso del público en general. Sólo en Lima, capital del Perú, se detectó que más de la mitad de los colegios incluidos en la investigación tenía menos personal trabajando que el que figuraba en la planilla de docentes. A nivel nacional, el 20% de las unidades intermedias de educación registra como gasto el pago de los servicios públicos de agua y luz de los centros educativos, cuando en realidad no paga por dichos servicios (de acuerdo a los centros educativos).

Related Resources

  • Public expenditure tracking surveys in education: Peru, Uganda and Zambia
    by Ritva Reinikka & Nathanael Smith, Ethics and corruption in education.
    Paris: Institute for Educational Planning, 2004. Adobe Acrobat PDF [1606 KB].
    Public expenditure tracking surveys, or PETS, now implemented in a number of countries including Cambodia, Ghana, Peru, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia have proven to be key instruments in determining how much of education resources originally allocated actually reach the schools.



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