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Integrated pest management

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This World Bank research on integrated pest management (IPM) examines the economics of integrated pest management and chemical-intensive agriculture in developing countries at several levels (e.g., production and cost functions, learning curves, health and environmental impacts, and agricultural extension).

Contact: Susmita Dasgupta, sdasgupta@worldbank.org

 

 Bangladesh | Vietnam | Data | Project documents | Research outputs | Researchers 

 

Concerns about the sustainability of chemical-based pest control techniques and the negative pollution and health problems associated with them have prompted widespread introduction of integrated pest management (IPM). IPM approaches range from carefully targeted use of chemical pesticides to biological techniques that use natural parasites and predators to control pests and weeds. Since pest and pest management problems affect most countries similarly, and many externalities are global in scope, IPM is gaining recognition as a global policy issue. This research examines what works best for farmers in Bangladesh and Vietnam.

 
IPM in Bangladesh
 


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Approximately 84% of Bangladesh's people are dependent on agriculture for their livelihood (agriculture contributes to 24% of GDP). Concerns about the sustainability of chemical-based agriculture has prompted application of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in Bangladesh since 1981. However. data scarcity has hindered a full accounting of IPM's impact on profitability, health, and local ecosystems.

Research in Bangladesh, using new survey data in 2003, found IPM adoption increases profit for rice farmers, since pesticide costs are reduced with no countervailing reduction in output. The reported incidence of sickness is lower for IPM farmers, and most farms report improved environmental conditions after adoption of the new technique.

For background on pesticide use in Bangladesh see:
"A Pinch or a Pint? Evidence of Pesticide Overuse in Bangladesh," Craig Meisner and Mainul Huq, Journal of Agricultural Economics 58(1): 91-114, 2007.

IPM in Vietnam
 

In 1989, Vietnam began to participate in the FAO’s Southeast Asia Inter-country Program (ICP) on IPM. With FAO assistance, the program began with ecosystem studies in rice fields in the North, Central and South of Vietnam from 1990-1991.

A national committee was established in 1994 for the National IPM Program (initiated in 1992) at the request of MARD (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development) and included several other ministries and unions. The Plant Protection Department (PPD) of MARD is responsible for coordinating and implementing Vietnam's National IPM Program, and the Provincial Plant Protection Sub-Departments (PPSDs) currently manage the program at the local level.

Over the past 10 years, with the assistance from the governments of Australia, the Netherlands, Switzerland and Denmark, non-governmental organizations, and local financial resources, a large number of IPM programs on other crops such as vegetables, cotton, tea, soybeans, and groundnuts also have been implemented. By 1998, IPM-trained farmers made up 3% of the nearly 11 million farmers in Vietnam.

For background information on pesticide use and alternatives to pesticides in Vietnam see:
"Vietnam promotes solutions to pesticide risks." Pesticides News 53: 6-7, September 2001.

 
Ongoing work in Vietnam
 

IPM appears to work best when all neighboring farmers adopt it at the same time. Externality problems make it difficult for individual farmers to successfully realize the full benefits of IPM. Without collective adoption, neighbors’ continued reliance on chemicals to kill pests will also kill beneficial parasites and predators, as well as exposing IPM farmers and local ecosystems to chemical spillovers from adjoining fields.

From a policy standpoint, successful IPM adoption may therefore depend on the level of institutional support for collective action. However, before any widespread promotion of integrated pest control methods is possible in developing countries, policymakers require more information on the effectiveness of alternative methods, productivity, profitability, health and environmental impacts of chemical-based and IPM agriculture (under individual adoption as well as collective action). So far, the lack of data has hindered a full accounting of IPM’s relative impact on farm profitability, health and local ecosystems in developing countries.

The ongoing research in Vietnam compares the economics of IPM to “traditional” agricultural pesticide use. So far, the lack of data has hindered a full accounting of IPM’s relative impact on farm profitability, health, and local ecosystems in developing countries.

The research comprises two parts:

  • Analyze the proliferation of IPM at the village/hamlet level
  • Compare the productivity, profitability and health impacts of chemical-based and IPM agriculture at the farm level (individual and collective action).

Collaborating Institution: The University of Economics, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

Presentations
Data
 
Bangladesh data
Vietnam data
  • Forthcoming
Research outputs 

"A Pinch or a Pint? Evidence of Pesticide Overuse in Bangladesh," Craig Meisner and Mainul Huq, Journal of Agricultural Economics 58(1): 91-114, 2007.

"Is Environmentally-Friendly Agriculture Less Profitable for Farmers? Evidence on Integrated Pest Management in Bangladesh," Susmita Dasgupta, Craig Meisner, David Wheeler, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3417, September 2004.

Evidence on Integrated Pest Management in Bangladesh," Susmita Dasgupta, Craig Meisner, David Wheeler, Review of Agricultural Economics 29 (1): 103-118, 2006.

 Researchers
  • Susmita Dasgupta (Lead Researcher, World Bank)
  • David R. Wheeler (Senior Fellow at the Center for Global Development)
  • Craig Meisner (World Bank)
  • Mainul Huq (World Bank)
  • Nlandu Mamingi (Professor of Economics at the University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, Barbados)
  • Nguyen Huu Dung (Director, Center for Environmental Economics and Sustainable Development (CEESD) and Faculty of Development Economics, University of Economics Hochiminh City, Vietnam)
  • Khuc Xuyen (Director of the Centre of Occupational & Environmental Health and Senior of the Project Office on Accident and Injury at the Vietnam Ministry of Health)


Last updated: 2009-08-28




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