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Research Roundup - September 2011

Focus on gender

Ladies first? Firm-level evidence on the labor impacts of the East Asian crisis
This study of “who is vulnerable in volatile times” shows that, within the same Indonesian firm, women experienced slightly higher job losses than their male colleagues. But the overall effect of such differential treatment was offset by women being disproportionately employed in firms less hard hit by the crisis.
Working Paper 5789, September 2011


Engendering trade
As countries integrate into the world economy, the costs and benefits of gender discrimination shift. In an increasingly globalized economy, the road to gender equality is specific to each country’s productive structure and exposure to world markets.
Working Paper 5777, August 2011

rwanda landEnvironmental and gender impacts of land tenure regularization in Rwanda
The nation-wide and relatively low-cost land tenure regularization program in Rwanda has improved land access for legally married women, prompted better recordation of inheritance rights without gender bias, and increased investments in soil conservation measures.
Working Paper 5765, August 2011
MaliLasting welfare effects of widowhood in a poor country (Mali)
Households headed by widows have significantly lower living standards on average than all other households in Mali. The adverse welfare effects of widowhood persist even after widows are absorbed into male-headed households such as through remarriage, and they are passed on to children, indicating an intergenerational transmission of poverty stemming from widowhood.
Working Paper 5734, July 2011
densityPopulation, poverty, and sustainable development: a review of the evidence
Studies show that low dependency ratios (resulting from lower fertility) create opportunities for savings and investment―which, with good policy management, can permanently transform living standards.
Working Paper 5719, June 2011
school girlCrossing boundaries: gender, caste and schooling in rural Pakistan
Girls in rural Pakistan face two social barriers to primary school enrollment: stigma based on caste affiliation and female seclusion that is more rigidly enforced for girls who have to cross hamlet boundaries to attend school. Providing schools in low-caste dominant hamlets would lead to twice the overall enrollment gain at one-sixth the cost of placing a school in every underserved hamlet.
Working Paper 5710, June 2011
migrationWhere on earth is everybody? The evolution of global bilateral migration 1960–2000
International migration is spreading across the globe as migrants widen their destination choices. Although global migrants are predominantly male, the proportion of female migrants increased noticeably between 1960 and 2000. The number of women rose in every region except South Asia.
Working Paper 5709, June 2011
rural womanDoes female reservation affect long-term political outcomes? Evidence from rural India
Gender quotas increase the level and quality of women’s political participation, the ability to hold leaders to account and the willingness to contribute to public goods in the long term, but the full impact often materializes only after a time delay---it’s important to consider the longer-term impact to gain a full appreciation of the policy.
Working Paper 5708, June 2011
votingTogether we will: experimental evidence on female voting behavior in Pakistan
The impact on female turnout and candidate choice of a voter awareness campaign showed that both treated and untreated women in treated geographical clusters are 12 percentage points more likely to vote, and are also more likely to exercise independence in candidate choice, suggesting large spillovers.
Working Paper 5692, June 2011
studentStudents today, teachers tomorrow? Identifying constraints on the provision of education in Pakistan
Private schools in Pakistan are three times more likely to locate in villages with a public secondary school for girls and (private school) teachers’ wages are 27 percent lower in these villages, suggesting that a shortage of teachers constrains the provision of education: The students in girls’ secondary schools today are the teachers in private schools tomorrow. Public investment in secondary education creates new teachers and spurs private participation in a virtuous cycle.
Working Paper 5674, June 2011
magnifyIs it what you inherited or what you learnt? Intergenerational linkage and interpersonal inequality in Senegal
Education matters more than inheritance to economic activity, welfare, and inequality in Senegal. Significant gender inequality in consumption is evident, although it can be almost entirely explained by education and (non-land) inheritance. A number of other pronounced gender differences are linked intergenerationally, coming through the mother rather than the father.
Working Paper 5658, May 2011

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