Medical & Pesticide Use Survey and Sampling Strategy: Vietnam
A survey of Vietnamese farmers was carried out by the Research Department of the World Bank in the winter of 2003. Structured questionnaires were used to collect information on farming systems, pesticide use and practices, applicator precautions/averting behavior and health/ environmental effects. The main geographical area of interest is the Mekong Delta. The survey was divided into two major sections, one dealing with the socio-economics of pesticide use (e.g. production, pesticides used, protection, training, etc.) and another strictly dealing with the health of the farmer (e.g. questions on self-reported health ailments/ health-related habits, a general physical exam, and patch-skin and blood tests for pesticides). The survey was constructed by the World Bank team in collaboration with the University of Economics in Ho Chi Minh City (for socio-economic portion of the survey) and the Centre of Occupational and Environmental Health (COEH) of the Vietnam Association of Occupational Health (VINOH) for the medical survey. Each of these World Bank counterparts was responsible for the implementation of the survey. To minimize any possible reporting bias, the survey was conducted under the agreement that the team would not reveal the identity of the farmers surveyed or the respondents.
Although the survey was conducted in a single season (the winter of 2003), respondents were asked detailed production and pesticide use questions that spanned the period of one year. Thus the survey contained information for the three major growing seasons of Winter-Spring 2002-2003, Spring-Summer 2003, and Summer-Autumn 2003.
The socio-economic survey covered the districts of An Phu and Chau Thanh (An Giang province), Thot Not and Vi Thanh (Can Tho province), Tan Thanh and Thu Thua (Long An province ), Cai Lay and Cho Gao (Tien Giang province), and Tra Cu and Tieu Can (Tra Vinh province) in the Mekong delta. Of the 603 surveyed farmers, 13.1% were poor according to the national poverty line defined by the Ministry of Labor, Invalids, and Social Affairs (MOLISA) in 2001. A large portion of the farmers surveyed owned 100% of their land, with 89% of poor and 60% of the non-poor farming less than 1.5 hectares of land. In terms of education, over half of the poor had at least primary education, while a larger percentage of the non-poor had secondary and high school education.
Primary data on 603 randomly selected rice farmers across 5 provinces in Mekong Delta, Vietnam. The detailed Information from Pesticide Use Mekong 1 file include: 1) farmer’s characteristic: age, income, education, plot size, ownership; 2) pesticide application behavior, 3) knowledge and training of safe handling of pesticides. The detailed information from Pesticide Use Mekong 2 file include 1) instructions on safe handling of pesticides, 2) precautions and damage-averting behavior.