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Household Expenditure and Income Data for Transitional Economies: the Online HEIDE Database

Authors:Branko L. Milanovic
Citation: 

The startling drop in incomes and increase in inequality accompanying the transition to market economies in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union raise critical questions: Who is most likely to be poor? How well are existing social assistance programs reaching those who most need help? And what kind of programs would be most effective in reducing poverty? As part of a project analyzing poverty and social assistance in the transition economies, a Bank research team created a database of household expenditure and income data from recent surveys - the HEIDE database. (See the book by J. Braithwaite, Ch. Grootaert and B. Milanovic, "Poverty and social assistance in Transition Countries, St. Martin's Press, 1999" and the book by B. Milanovic, Income, inequality, and poverty during the transition from planned to market economy, World Bank, 1998.)

The HEIDE database includes four countries in both Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union. The entire HEIDE database (STATA file) and data descriptions are available below.  Country data (STATA files)and their descriptions can also be individually downloaded:

Eastern Europe
(year of survey; period of coverage)

Former Soviet Union
(year of survey; period of coverage)

Latvia 
(year of survey; period of coverage)

Bulgaria (1995; six months)
household data
individual data
 

Armenia (1994; a quarter)household data (rural)
household data (urban)
individual data (rural)
individual data (urban)

Latvia (1997-98; a year)
household data
individual data

Hungary (1993, a year)
household data
individual data
 
Estonia (1995, a quarter)
household data
individual data
 
Poland (1993, six months)
household data
individual data
 
Kyrgyz Republic (1993, a quarter)
household data
individual data
 
Slovak Republic (1993, a year)
household data
individual data
Russia (1993-94, six months)
household data
individual data
 

The survey data were cleaned for possible inconsistencies and errors and adjusted for missing data and outliers. The compilation of almost 100 variables with similar definitions for the eight countries allows ready cross-country analysis and comparisons. A consistent syntax is used for the variables to enable researchers to use the same macro routines across countries.  There are more than 3 million data points.

The variables are divided into six groups:

VariableExample

Expenditure 

(food, housing, and health expenditures)

Income 

(wages, self-employment income, and home consumption)
Asset(consumer durables, productive assets, and land)
Household descriptive(socioeconomic status and place of residence)
Individual descriptive  (sex, age, education, and labor force status)
Sample-related  (household and individual sample weights)
Access to Dataset
  • Full HEIDE database (zipped file, 5.4mb)


  • Detailed definition of each variable (pdf file, 263kb)


  • Description of data cleaning process (pdf file, 92kb)





  • Permanent URL for this page: http://go.worldbank.org/UH6NQL0GS0