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Quantifying Environmental Performance Survey Results

Report Number:1448
Citation: 

Description of the Survey |  Survey Questionnaire  |  List of Countries |  Dataset 

Description of the Survey
For this exercise, we have randomly selected 31 UNCED reports from the total of 145. These 31 range from highly industrialized to extremely poor, they are drawn from every world region, and they range in size and diversity from China to Jamaica.

Our survey considers the state of policy and performance in four environmental dimensions: Air, Water, Land and Living Resources. We analyze the apparent state of policy as it affects the interactions between these four environmental dimensions and five activity categories: Agriculture, Industry, Energy, Transport and the Urban Sector. Although many overlaps undoubtedly exist, we attempt to draw a separate assessment for the interaction of each activity category with each environmental dimension.

Our survey assessment uses twenty five questions to categorize the state of (i) environmental awareness; (ii) scope of policies adopted; (iii) scope of legislation enacted; (iv) control mechanisms in place; and (v) the degree of success in implementation. The status in each category is graded "High, Medium, Low," with assigned values of 2, 1 and 0 respectively. For each UNCED country report, all twenty-five questions are answered for each element of the matrix in Table 1. With 20 elements in the matrix, 500 assessment scores are developed for each country.

Table 1, Evaluation Format

Sector/ ActivityAirWaterLandLiving Resources
Agriculture        
Industry        
Energy        
Transport        
Urban        

 

 

 

 

 

Questionnaire for Evaluating Environmental Policy Performance

1. AWARENESS

A. When did environmental awareness gain prominence?

  • 2 Pre 1972
  • 1 1972-89
  • 0 1990+

B. How widespread is this awareness at present?

  • 2 Mass awareness countrywide
  • 1 Restricted to limited pockets of elite groups
  • 0 Very little awareness

C. The extent of awareness regarding global dimensions

  • 2 Excellent
  • 1 Reasonable
  • 0 Very little

 

2. POLICY

A. For how long has significant environmental policy existed?

  • 2 Dates back to 1970s
  • 1 Introduced in the last ten years
  • 0 Very little so far

B. How did the policy evolve?

  • 2 As a felt need
  • 1 Of late as a result of diffusion of knowledge
  • 0 Yet to evolve significantly

C. What is the coverage of the policy?

  • 2 Comprehensive with clearly laid down targets
  • 1 Some policy and some targets
  • 0 Very little policy

 

3. LEGISLATION

A. When did significant environmental legislation begin to be enacted?

  • 2 Dates back to 1970s
  • 1 Introduced in the last ten years
  • 0 Very little so far

B. How extensive is the legislation so far?

  • 2 Comprehensive and supported by detailed rules and regulations
  • 1 Sketchy; some rules and regulations
  • 0 Only a few or none at all

C. What is the extent of machinery for enforcement of laws?

  • 2 Agency clearly entrusted with specified guidelines
  • 1 Agency set up but yet to develop effectively
  • 0 No agency or very little effort so far

 

4. CONTROL MECHANISM

A. What is the nature of regulatory instruments?

  • 2 Both command and control as well as economic
  • 1 Only command and control
  • 0 Hardly any mechanism

B. What is the extent of power vested in the environmental protection agency?

  • 2 Both formulation of policy as well as its enforcement
  • 1 Only limited to policy
  • 0 No agency or very little power

C. What is the degree of decentralization of such an agency?

  • 2 Extensive
  • 1 Somewhat
  • 0 Very little

4. CONTROL MECHANISM (continued)

D. What is the extent of allocation of funds to the agency?

  • 2 Reasonably good for carrying out allotted tasks
  • 1 Some but not enough for effective functioning
  • 0 None or very little

E. What is the extent of self regulation by polluters?

  • 2 Extensive
  • 1 Somewhat
  • 0 Very little

F. How widespread is the involvement of NGOs in regulation?

  • 2 Extensive
  • 1 Somewhat
  • 0 Very little

G. What is the progress of preparation of a national environmental action plan (NEAP)?

  • 2 NEAP with detailed plans for identifiable regions have been prepared
  • 1 Only a sketchy NEAP or plans for some regions
  • 0 No action so far

 

5. MEASURE OF SUCCESS

A. What is the trend in environmental indicators?

  • 2 Improving
  • 1 Not much headway but steady
  • 0 Deteriorating

B. Roughly what percentage of GDP is being devoted for environmental control measures?

  • 2 More than 1%
  • 1 Some but less than 1%
  • 0 Almost none

C. What is the market share of pollution control industries in total industrial production?

  • 2 Above the global average
  • 1 Around average
  • 0 Below average

D. What is the prevalence of environmental incidents/accidents?

  • 2 Almost none
  • 1 A few
  • 0 Considerable

E. How good is the availability of environmental data?

  • 2 Extensively compiled
  • 1 Sporadically available
  • 0 None or very little

F. What is the extent of interest in environmental studies and R & D?

  • 2 Widespread
  • 1 Somewhat
  • 0 None or very little

G. How widespread is the involvement of NGOs in the environmental movement?

  • 2 Considerable
  • 1 Somewhat
  • 0 None or very little

H. What is the prevalence of environmental litigation?

  • 2 Considerable
  • 1 Somewhat
  • 0 None or very little

I. What is the level of media interest in environmental issues?

  • 2 Very high
  • 1 Somewhat
  • 0 None or very little

 Countries included in survey

  • Bangladesh
  • Bhutan
  • Brazil
  • Bulgaria
  • China
  • Egypt
  • Ethiopia
  • Finland
  • Germany
  • Ghana
  • India
  • Ireland
  • Jamaica
  • Jordan
  • Kenya
  • Korea
  • Malawi
  • Mozambique
  • Netherlands
  • Nigeria
  • Pakistan
  • Papua NG
  • Paraguay
  • Philippines
  • S.Africa
  • Switzerland
  • Tanzania
  • Thailand
  • Trinidad
  • Tunisia
  • Zambia
Access to Dataset
  • Quantifying Environmental Performance Survey Results (zipped file, 52.4kb)





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