Click here for search results


Site Tools

Household Expenditure and Income Data for Transitional Economies (HEIDE)

Authors:Branko L. Milanovic
Duration:1993 - 1993
Topics:International Economics & Trade, Labor & Social Protections, Poverty and Social Development
Report Number:WPS2009

Paternostro, Stefano, Peter Lanjouw, and Branko Milanovic, "Poverty and the Economic Transition: How Do Changes in Economies of Scale Affect Poverty Rates for Different Households?" World Bank Policy Research Working Paper Number 2009, February 2000.

The startling drop in incomes and increase in inequality accompanying the transition to market economies in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union raise critical questions: Who is most likely to be poor? How well are existing social assistance programs reaching those who most need help? And what kind of programs would be most effective in reducing poverty? As part of a project analyzing poverty and social assistance in the transition economies, a Bank research team created a database of household expenditure and income data from recent surveys - the HEIDE database. (See the book by J. Braithwaite, Ch. Grootaert and B. Milanovic, "Poverty and social assistance in Transition Countries, St. Martin's Press, 1999" and the book by B. Milanovic, Income, inequality, and poverty during the transition from planned to market economy, World Bank, 1998.)

The HEIDE database includes four countries in both Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union. The entire HEIDE database and data descriptions are available in a zipped file. 5430kb. Country data and their descriptions can also be individually downloaded.

Data are in STATA format. Users can translate the data set into lower versions of STATA, SAS, or SPSS, or other programs using standard transfer software such as StatTransfer.

The survey data were cleaned for possible inconsistencies and errors and adjusted for missing data and outliers. The compilation of almost 100 variables with similar definitions for the eight countries allows ready cross-country analysis and comparisons. A consistent syntax (pdf file, 263kb) is used for the variables to enable researchers to use the same macro routines across countries. (The HEIDE documentation describes the data cleaning procedures (pdf file, 92kb) and gives a detailed definition of each variable (zipped file, 28kb) for each country.) There are more than 3 million data points.

The variables are divided into six groups:

  1. Expenditure (food, housing, and health expenditures)
  2. Income (wages, self-employment income, and home consumption)
  3. Asset (consumer durables, productive assets, and land)
  4. Household descriptive (socioeconomic status and place of residence)
  5. Individual descriptive (sex, age, education, and labor force status)
  6. Sample-related (household and individual sample weights)

HEIDE Complete Dataset (zipped file, 54mb)

Eastern Europe

Former Soviet Union


Household data for other regions may be found on the Living Standards Measurement Survey (LSMS) site. This site provides resources for LSMS documents, data sets, research, and tools for managing and using household surveys.

Access to Dataset
  • Source of Information for Listed Countries in 1993 (pdf file, 33kb)

  • Variable List (pdf file, 264kb)

  • Source of Information for Listed Countries in 1988 (pdf file, 30kb)

  • Household Survey Data (MS Excel file, 271kb)

  • Post 1995 data (MS Excel file, 56kb)

  • Data Cleaning Procedures (pdf file, 93kb)

  • Variable Definitions (pdf file, 29kb)

  • Gini data from Deininger-Squire (STATA file, 384kb)

  • Permanent URL for this page:

    © 2016 The World Bank Group, All Rights Reserved. Legal