Click here for search results

Table and Figures

Tables and Figures

Chapter 1

Figure1.1a

Gross investment in developing countries has increased in absolute terms (panel a)

Figure1.1b

As a share of global investment (panel b)

Figure1.2a

Developing countries' rising investment rates (panel a) and growing share of global output (panel b) have contributed to their increased share of investment in global output

Figure1.2b

Developing countries' rising investment rates (panel a) and growing share of global output (panel b) have contributed to their increased share of investment in global output

Figure1.3

The rising share of developing countries' investment in global output is due to more than just changes in China and India

Figure1.4

Investment rates among Sub-Saharan African countries of different income levels have followed distinct paths

Figure1.5a

Global manufacturing investment tends to be concentrated in lower-middle-income countries (panel a), with China currently accounting for the vast majority of investment in those countries (panel b)

Figure1.5b

Global manufacturing investment tends to be concentrated in lower-middle-income countries (panel a), with China currently accounting for the vast majority of investment in those countries (panel b)

Figure1.6a

The public sector share of output is lower in high-income countries than in other country groups (panel a), but the public sector share of investment has converged among country groups (panel b)

Figure1.6b

The public sector share of output is lower in high-income countries than in other country groups (panel a), but the public sector share of investment has converged among country groups (panel b)

Figure1.7a

Private sector commitments to infrastructure have risen over time, both in major developing countries (panel a) and across most infrastructure subsectors (panel b)

Figure1.7b

Private sector commitments to infrastructure have risen over time, both in major developing countries (panel a) and across most infrastructure subsectors (panel b)

Figure1.8

Infrastructure investment shares of GDP declined rapidly in major Latin American economies in the late 1980s and have remained subdued in subsequent years

Figure1.9

Adjusting capital stocks by efficiencyadjusted units of labor results in different distributions compared to comparing capital stocks alone

Figure1.10

Investment rates and financial sector development in developed and developing countries have evolved similarly

Figure1.11

A positive relationship exists between investment and institutional quality

Figure1.12a.

Total investment (panel a) and investment share of global output (panel b) will increase in developing relative to high-income economies in the gradual convergence scenario

Figure1.12b.

Total investment (panel a) and investment share of global output (panel b) will increase in developing relative to high-income economies in the gradual convergence scenario

Figure1.13a.

Investment rates in many developing countries will trend downward in the gradual convergence scenario, but remain fairly stable in high-income countries

Figure1.13b.

Investment rates in many developing countries will trend downward in the gradual convergence scenario, but remain fairly stable in high-income countries

Figure1.14.

The yield on loanable funds will rise more rapidly in high-income countries than in many developing countries

Figure1.15a.

Developing countries will account for more than half of global capital stocks by 2030 in the gradual convergence scenario (panel b), compared with about a third today (panel a)

Figure1.15b.

Developing countries will account for more than half of global capital stocks by 2030 in the gradual convergence scenario (panel b), compared with about a third today (panel a)

Figure1.16a.

Total global investment will be higher for developing countries in the rapid convergence scenario (panel a), but this belies substantial heterogeneity in individual developing-country experiences
(panel b)

Figure1.16b

Total global investment will be higher for developing countries in the rapid convergence scenario (panel a), but this belies substantial heterogeneity in individual developing-country experiences
(panel b)

Figure1.17a.

Annual infrastructure investment needs in developing countries will be substantial for the next two decades (panel a), with the greatest needs arising in East and South Asia (panel b)

Figure1.17b

Annual infrastructure investment needs in developing countries will be substantial for the next two decades (panel a), with the greatest needs arising in East and South Asia (panel b)

Figure1.18.

Infrastructure investment financing modes have changed over time and will likely favor greater bond financing in the future

FigureB1.1.1a.

Differentials in investment rates (panel a) and capital-output ratios (panel b) are greater when measured in PPP terms

FigureB1.1.1b.

Differentials in investment rates (panel a) and capital-output ratios (panel b) are greater when measured in PPP terms

FigureB1.2.1.

Many countries experience weak growth following an investment boom

FigureB1.3.1.

Investment in human capital relative to physical capital in highincome and developing countries, 1990–99 to 2000–10

FigureB1.6.1.

Tobin's average Q is higher on average in lower-income developing countries, reflecting market expectations of greater growth potential

FigureB1.7.1a.

Tobin's average Q is higher on average in lower-income developing countries, reflecting market expectations of greater growth potential a. High-income countries

FigureB1.7.1b.

Tobin's average Q is higher on average in lower-income developing countries, reflecting market expectations of greater growth potential b. Developing countries

Map

Map1.1

The geographical distribution of capital stocks has gradually shifted to developing countries over the past three decades

Map1.2

Capital stocks per worker are now more equally distributed than ever before

Table
Table 1.1There is significant heterogeneity in marginal products of capital, at both economywide and sectoral levels, across developing countries
Table 1.2Both developing and high-income countries will see a rise in the share of investment devoted to the services sector in the future
Table B1.2.1Investment booms have occurred in a broad range of developing and highincome countries
Table B1.4.1Top five project finance deals in the Middle East, 2009
  

Chapter 2

Figure 2.1

Developing countries have accounted for a growing share of global saving since around 2000
Figure 2.2Both relative size and saving rates have contributed significantly to the increased global importance of developing countries' saving
Figure 2.3Developing countries' saving rates have increased
Figure 2.4The paths of saving rates have differed substantially across major developing economies
Figure 2.5Saving rates tend to be lower in lower-income countries
Figure 2.6Household saving varies significantly by region
Figure2.7Corporate saving in China and India has grown faster than household saving in recent years
Figure2.8The public portion of national saving has fluctuated within a fixed range
Figure 2.9Saving rates tend to increase with growth (panel a) and decrease with financial development
Figure 2.10Saving rates tend to decrease with population aging
Figure2.11By 2020, growth in world's working-age population will be exclusively determined by developing countries
Figure2.12Birth and death rates have shown distinct trends across regions
Figure2.13The size and timing of the demographic "bulge" differs across regions
Figure2.14Saving rates will decline more slowly in developing countries, and by 2030 those countries will account for two-thirds of global saving
Figure2.15China will continue to be dominant in the global saving picture
Figure2.16Differences in the demographic transition
will translate into different saving rate trends
Figure2.17National saving rates (panel a) and share of global saving (panel b), by income groups, gradual versus rapid convergence scenario, 2010–30
Figure2.18National saving rates of Thailand, the Russian Federation, Mexico, and Ghana are similar to those of their regions
Figure 2.19Projection of age effects on household saving rates in Ghana and the Russian Federation
Figure2.20Demographic change will drive large changes in saving rates in the decades ahead
Figure 2.21Due to strong growth, the cohort effect will play an important role in the path of Thailand's saving rate
Figure2.22Growth is an important determinant of saving rates: Two scenarios for the Russian Federation
Figure 2.23Educational attainment in Mexico has been rising over time
Figure 2.24The saving life cycle differs significantly by educational attainment (panel a), but across all educational levels, young cohorts tend to save more than older cohorts (panel b)
Figure2.25Increased earning power will be the greatest driver of saving by Mexican households
Figure2.26The bottom 40 percent of income earners in developing regions are not only less likely to save than the top 60 percent but are also less likely to save using formal financial institutions
Figure 2.27The age composition of households varies by age of the household head; more highly educated individuals are less likely to live in a household headed by someone younger
Figure 2.28Household size varies by age of the household head, and this relationship varies somewhat by educational level
Figure 2.29Younger cohorts tend to have smaller family sizes, but this relationship varies significantly across regions
Figure 2.30There is wide variation across countries in the extent to which public transfers tend to rise with age
Figure B2.1.1The global distribution of national wealth per capita has changed over time
Figure B2.2.1Developing countries have made significant progress in reducing child mortality, although from different starting points and at different rates
Figure B2.2.2The gap in fertility rates across regions has narrowed
Figure B2.5.1Family size for the first and latest cohort, points and fitted
values, República Bolivariana de Venezuela
Table
Table 2.1Trends in saving rates differ widely across countries
Table 2.2Household saving rates differ significantly along the income distribution
Table 2.3The prevalence of intergenerational households varies by country income level and by region
Table 2.4The path of age-related fiscal pressures will depend strongly on benefit and coverage levels
Table 2.5Population aging will put severe pressure on some countries' public pension systems
Table B2.5.1:Number of countries with available census data, by region, 1960–2009

Chapter 3

Figure3.1Changes in yields are more muted under the gradual convergence scenario than under rapid convergence
Figure3.2in the gradual convergence scenario, there will be sizable net capital flows from China to high-income countries
Figure3.3In the rapid convergence scenario, much of the developing world apart from China will be net capital importers
Figure3.4Gross capital flows have long expanded relatively faster than net flows in highincome economies, and in recent years a similar trend can be observed in developing economies
Figure3.5nternational investment positions still reflect a large disparity in foreign asset holdings between advanced and developing countries
Figure 3.6The relationship between GDP per capita and external balances across countries is nonlinear
Figure3.7By 2030, most gross capital flows may go to developing countries
Figure3.8Relative to developing countries' GDP, gross inflows may hold steady or trend upward, depending on the pace of growth and financial development
Figure 3.9Small and medium developing countries as well as the BRICs will be important sources and destinations of capital flows
Figure 3.10Historically, the composition of capital inflows has differed between income groups, with FDI providing stability in flows to developing countries
Figure3.11International assets and foreign exchange trading are mainly denominated in the U.S. dollar and the euro
Figure3.12The U.S. dollar is still the main currency in global credit markets
Figure3.13A number of new central bank liquidity swap lines were extended between December 2007 and December 2010
FigureB3.2.1Net capital outflows (current account), the United Kingdom and the United States, 1850–1945 (panel a) and evolution of the global pattern of current account balances, 1980–2010 (panel b)
FigureB3.4.1Gross capital inflows to Sub-Saharan Africa will rise as a share of inflows to developing countries
FigureB3.4.2Cross-border bank loans to Sub-Saharan Africa are on the rise

 

 




Permanent URL for this page: http://go.worldbank.org/I2EXJQG6Y0