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GMR 2009: Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria, and Other Diseases

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Targets:

  • Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS
  • Achieve by 2010 universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need it
  • Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases
In 2007, around 33 million people globally were living with HIV, and about 2 million people, the majority in Sub-Saharan Africa, died from the disease. Most countries face difficulty in reaching the MDG targets related to HIV/AIDS. Less than half of the individuals in these countries have correct knowledge about HIV transmission and prevention. Women from the poorest income quintile are the least knowledgeable. Achieving the target to halt and reverse the incidence of major diseases such as malaria and tuberculosis has also been challenging.
HIV prevelance rates and estimated deaths

HIV prevalence is the percentage of individuals ages 15–49 who are infected with the HIV virus. South Africa had the highest number of estimated deaths from AIDS (350,000) and a prevalence rate of 18.1 percent in 2007. Other Sub-Saharan African countries also exhibited high death rates and prevalence rates greater than 1 percent.

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HIV/AIDS knowledge is defined as the percentage of individuals who have comprehensive, correct knowledge about HIV (ability to describe two ways to prevent infection and to reject three misconceptions concerning HIV). Estimates from household surveys in Sub-Saharan African countries such as Cameroon, Chad, and Mozambique reveal the disparity in knowledge about the sexual transmission of HIV/AIDS by household income levels and gender of the respondents. Women from the poorest income quintile have the least amount of knowledge, while men from the richest income quintiles have the most knowledge. Men and women from the richest quintiles have more knowledge than their counterparts in the poorest quintile. A higher percentage of men and women in Cameroon have HIV/AIDS knowledge compared to Mozambique, and subsequently the prevalence and estimated death rates in Cameroon were both lower in 2007.

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To effectively halt and lower the tuberculosis (TB) incidence rate, early detection and successful treatment of the disease are vital. The TB cases detected under the Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS) increased dramatically in East Asia and the Pacific (40 to 77 percent) and South Asia (29 to 67 percent) from 2002 to 2007. The detection rate in Sub-Saharan Africa only rose marginally from 42 to 47 percent. The TB treatment success rate has fallen in Latin America and the Caribbean and Europe and Central Asia, but has slightly improved in the other regions.

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The majority of malaria cases that plague the developing world occur in tropical or subtropical regions. Malaria causes over 1 million deaths each year, predominantly in Sub-Saharan Africa, to children under age five. Because bednets protect humans from contact with mosquitoes, which are the vector for malaria transmission, they are one of the best malarial prevention strategies. In most countries, children in the richest quintile have a greater usage of bednets, but the reverse is true in Colombia, Ghana, Namibia, and Nigeria.

 

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