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Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria, and Other Diseases

Click here for September 2008 update on MDG Progress

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Goal 6 Picture
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TargetHave halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS
TargetAchieve, by 2010, universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need it
TargetHave halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases
It is estimated that 99 percent of individuals who die from AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria reside in the developing world. In 2007, 33 million individuals were living with HIV, 2.5 million were newly infected, and 2.1 million died from AIDS. As the estimated number of people living with HIV increases each year, the AIDS epidemic has become one of the greatest challenges to public health and requires improved access to HIV prevention and treatment services. Prevalence rates have stabilized since 2001 and have now started to decline, although moderately. Progress is most pronounced in Sub-Saharan Africa, where the proportion of population living with HIV has declined by a full percentage point since 2000. However, other regions that had started from much lower levels conversely record increases in prevalence rates, mostly within high-risk populations. 
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MDG6 - Fig 1 - Turberculosis incidence

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Tuberculosis (TB) incidence rates measure the percentage of the population that is newly infected with TB (pulmonary, smear positive, and extrapulmonary), while prevalence rates measure the percentage of individuals in a population who have TB. Both are measured per 100,000 people. Both the incidence and prevalence rates for TB have either remained level or declined from 1990 to 2005 in every region except Sub-Saharan Africa and Europe and Central Asia, where TB has been leveling off since the early 2000s. Following earlier declines in prevalence rates for TB, the incidence rate for the different regions has now stabilized or has been decreasing, but population growth has been offsetting the slow fall in incidence rates.

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 MDG6 - Fig 2 - Estimated HIV prevalence

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The HIV prevalence rate measures the percentage of individuals in a population who are infected with the HIV virus. The global prevalence rate has remained level since 2001. In many Sub-Saharan African countries the national prevalence rate has either leveled off or decreased.
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 MDG6 - Fig 3 - HIV prevalnce rates

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Sub-Saharan Africa, the region with the highest HIV prevalence rates, had a decrease from 6.36 in 2003 to 5.76 in 2005. In 2005 the prevalence rates in other regions were much lower, ranging from 0.15 (in the Middle East and North Africa) to 0.71 (in South Asia). High-income countries recorded a prevalence rate of 0.36 in both 2003 and 2005. From 2003 to 2005, 69 countries had positive annual changes in HIV prevalence rates, while 51 had annual decreases during that time.

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 MDG6 - Fig 4 - Rates of condom use

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Condom use and knowledge about HIV can help to decrease the number of individuals who become infected by HIV. The rate of condom use is defined as the percentage of the population between the ages of 15 to 24 who use a condom (or in the case of females, whose partner uses a condom), and the rate of HIV knowledge is defined as the percentage of individuals (in this case female) who have comprehensive, correct knowledge about HIV (ability to describe two ways to prevent infection and to reject three misconceptions concerning HIV). Condom use for females’ partners increased in all Sub-Saharan Africa countries with available data except Zimbabwe, where usage is estimated to have decreased from 11 to 10 percent between 1999 and 2004. Usage sharply increased in South Africa, from 25 percent in 1999 to 60 percent in 2004. Female HIV knowledge also increased in most countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, most notably in Rwanda, where knowledge went from 26 to 48 percent between 1990 and 2004. But gains can also be reversed, as observed in Malawi, where HIV knowledge receded. 

Photo credit: Curt Carnemark




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