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Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability

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Goal 7 Picture
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Target
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Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programs and reverse the loss of environmental resources
TargetReduce biodiversity loss, achieving by 2010 a significant reduction in the rate of loss
TargetHalve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation
 TargetHave achieved a significant improvement by 2020 in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers
 
Access to clean potable water and basic sanitation is one of the targets to ensuring environmental sustainability and a key indicator for human development. Over 1 billion individuals lack access to safe drinking water and 2.5 billion individuals lack access to basic sanitation. Improvements in these two areas could help to reduce dramatically the burden of disease, particularly diarrhea, which contributes to approximately 1.8 million deaths annually. In addition, deforestation and greenhouse gas emissions, such as carbon dioxide, threaten biodiversity and drive climate change through global warming. In most regions adjusted net savings is negative or on the decline, indicating that countries are not saving enough to offset resource depletion and environmental degradation, thus clouding prospects of sustainable development.
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MDG7 - Fig 1 - Pop without access water

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Access to sanitation refers to the percentage of population with at least adequate access to excreta facilities (private or shared, but not public) that can effectively prevent human, animal, and insect contact with excreta. Regional estimates are computed using country data covering 99 percent of developing countries’ total population. Access to improved sources of water refers to the percentage of population with reasonable access to a permanent source of safe water in their dwelling or within a reasonable distance from it. Regional estimates are computed using country data covering 98 percent of developing countries’ total population. Latin America and the Caribbean and East Asia and the Pacific were broadly on track by 2004 to halve the proportion of people without access to an improved source of water and sanitation facilities by 2015. South Asia was on track to meet the water access goal, but off track for reaching the sanitation access goal. The Middle East and North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Europe and Central Asia were off track on both goals; the transition economies record the lowest proportion of people lacking access to both water and sanitation.

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 MDG7 - Fig 2 - Regions contributions deforestation

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Forests act as carbon sinks and absorb carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Deforestation thus hinders sustainable development because it results in higher levels of greenhouse gas emissions as well as loss of biodiversity. Between 1990 and 2005 the global surface of forests was reduced by 1.3 million square kilometers, or 3 percent of its total. Forty percent of the world’s forests are located in Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa, which were the two most important regional contributors to global deforestation. Latin America and the Caribbean lost 7 percent of its forests in 15; Sub-Saharan Africa, 9 percent. 
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 MDG7 - Fig 4 - Adjusted net savings

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Adjusted net savings measures the savings rate in an economy after adjustments are made for educational expenditure, capital depreciation, natural resource depletion, and carbon dioxide and particulate emissions damage. A negative savings rate indicates that an economy is on an unsustainable future path of economic growth. Europe and Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, and Sub-Saharan Africa have all exhibited a downward trend in adjusted net savings since 1995 and had negative adjusted net savings rates in 2005. Latin America and the Caribbean had a positive 2005 adjusted net savings rate but also had declining adjusted net savings levels. In recent years, only the Asian regions seem to have both an upward trend in adjusted net savings and a positive savings rate.
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 MDG7 - Fig 3 - CO2 emissions per capita

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Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are derived from fossil energy use and cement manufacture, which tends to rise with incomes. Thus per capita CO2 emissions are greatest in high-income countries, which record levels more than five times those of developing countries. The Middle East and North Africa, East Asia and the Pacific, South Asia, and Sub-Saharan Africa have recorded increases. 
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 MDG7 - Fig 5 - Proportion improved water

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Thirty-five percent of the developing countries with available data have achieved or are on track to achieve the improved water target, while 24 percent have achieved or are on track to achieve the improved sanitation target. Fifty-seven percent of countries with available data in the Middle East and North Africa and in Europe and Central Asia are seriously off track in improving access to safe drinking water. Conditions are worse for the improved sanitation target, where 12 of 19 European and Central Asian countries and 36 of 45 Sub-Saharan African countries with available data are seriously off track.

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