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Goal 7: Using Resources Wisely

Goal 7: using Resources Wisely

Sustainable development can be ensured only by protecting the environment and using resources wisely.

Less than 20 percent of developing countries are on track or have achieved the 2015 target to increase access to water, and less than 35 percent have increased access to sanitation, but Sub-Saharan African countries are lagging behind other regions.

And in the fragile states, the proportion of countries on track to achieve the target for increased access to water and sanitation is 6 percent and 15 percent, respectively.

Around the world, land is being degraded and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are driving changes in global climate.

Climate change is a grave threat to the developing world and a major obstacle to continued poverty reduction across many dimensions.

First, developing regions are at a geographic disadvantage: they are already warmer, on average, than developed regions, and they suffer from high rainfall variability.

Second, developing countries—in particular the poorest—are heavily dependent on agriculture, the most climate-sensitive of all economic sectors, and they suffer from inadequate health provision and low quality public services.

Third, low incomes and vulnerabilities make adaptation to climate change particularly difficult. Global emissions of CO2 rose by 4 billion metric tons between 1990 and 2003.

  Environment Figure 1
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In Sub-Saharan Africa, 300 million people lack
access to improved water sources, and 450
million lack adequate sanitation services.

South Asia has made excellent progress in providing water, but progress has been slower in providing sanitation.

In East Asia, rapid urbanization is posing a
challenge for the provision of water and other public utilities.

Latin America and the Caribbean, the most urban developing region, has made slow progress in providing sanitation.

Many countries in Europe and Central Asia lacked
reliable benchmarks for measuring improved
access to water and sanitation in the early 1990s.

In the Middle East and North Africa, Egypt,
Morocco, and Tunisia have made the fastest

TARGET 9: Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programs and reverse
the loss of environmental resources.
TARGET 10: Halve by 2015 the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and
basic sanitation.
TARGET 11: Have achieved a signifi cant improvement by 2020 in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers.

Environment Figure 2
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Environment Figure 3
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Lack of clean water is the main reason that diseases transmitted by feces are so common in developing countries.

Water is a daily need that must be met, but in some places people spend many hours to obtain water from sources that are not protected from contamination.

Even the modest target of halving the number of people without access to an improved water source will not be met in many countries at the current rate of progress.

Only 35 percent of countries are on track to
achieve or have achieved the target.

Are countries saving enough for future growth?

Adjusted net saving measures the rate of saving in an economy after taking into account investments in human capital, depreciation of produced capital, depletion of natural resources, and damage caused by pollution.

A negative saving rate implies that current levels of welfare and growth may be threatened by resource depletion.

The Middle East and North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Eastern Europe and Central Asia had negative saving rates in 2005 when depletion of natural resources was taken into account.

The largest decline in saving between 1995 and 2005 occurred in these three regions, while the largest gain, 3.7 percent of GNI, was in South Asia.

Environment Figure 4
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Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a greenhouse gas that contributes to global climate change.

Global emissions of CO2 from burning fossil fuels and manufacturing cement rose by 4 billion metric tons between 1990 and 2003.

Most of the increase in these emissions came from high-income countries (2.09 billion metric tons) and East Asia and the Pacific (2.07 billion metric tons).

South Asia and the Middle East and North Africa have regions with the largest percentage increase in emissions, followed by East Asia and the Pacific.

Conversely, owing to the economic recession and restructuring of the 1990s, the transition economies of Europe and Central Asia emitted less CO2 in 2003 than in 1990.

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